Ionizing radiation is radiation formed when an atom is exposed to sufficient energy to draw electrons from its orbit to become electrically charged or ionized.
Computed Tomography (CT), Conventional X-ray, Mammography, Densitometry, Orthopantomography, Angiography and Fluoroscopy.
When ionizing radiation strikes cells, their chemical structure can be damaged causing damage to the cells and changes in the genetic material.
Thus, the biological effects of ionizing radiation can be divided into two categories: deterministic and stochastic effects. The deterministic refer to damage to the skin, usually severe and chronic damage of the crystalline lens.For these effects there is a threshold dose from which these damages occur.The stochastic include the hereditary effects and malignant transformation of the cells, and can lead to the development of cancer. For these effects a threshold dose is not considered, so the likelihood of induction is reduced by the use of dose values as low as possible - state-of-the-art equipment and adequate means of protection.
X-radiations (x - rays) are known to cause adverse effects on the human body, namely ultrastructural changes in the cells. These changes may occur in both the individuals receiving radiation , as well as in their offspring. The radiation received is cumulative, that is, each dose to which we are exposed is added to the other doses received in the future. The entire patient can be x-rayed. Radiation should be avoided within the first 3 months of pregnancy.
State-of-the-art equipment where the dose of radiation is downright minor - the most important factor - means of protection, whenever subjected to radiation studies; particular attention to the mammary glands in young people (risk of induction of breast cancer), thyroid and eyeballs, when these regions are covered in the study. There are situations in which it is not possible to use additional means of protection, as it is detrimental to the examination. For this reason, the most important factor to take into account is the use of state-of-the-art equipment.